Puzzle pieces show, with Play button.
When user clicks Play button, puzzle pieces fly in from the left and right to form a puzzle. Each piece has a one of the following. Once all pieces are in place, the buttons become usable and display next to them the content provided with each title below.
Title: Criterion 1: Reliability of Measures.
Content: Outcome measures should have acceptable reliability (i.e., at a level that is conventionally accepted by experts in the field) to be interpretable.
Title: Criterion 2: Validity of Measures.
Content: Outcome measures should have acceptable validity (i.e., at a level that is conventionally accepted by experts in the field) to be interpretable.
Title: Criterion 3: Intervention Fidelity.
Content: The "experimental" intervention implemented in a study should have fidelity to the intervention proposed by the applicant. Instruments that have tested acceptable psychometric properties (e.g., inter-rater reliability, validity as shown by positive association with outcomes) provide the highest level of evidence.
Title: Criterion 4: Missing Data and Attrition.
Content: Study results can be biased by participant attrition and other forms of missing data. Statistical methods as supported by theory and research can be employed to control for missing data and attrition that would bias results, but studies with no attrition or missing data needing adjustment provide the strongest evidence that results are not biased.
Title: Criterion 5: Potential Confounding Variables.
Content: Often variables other than the intervention may account for the reported outcomes. The degree to which confounds are accounted for affects the strength of causal inference.
Some common confounds include history (any event that happens between measurements that affects participants), maturation (normal processes of development that affect may account for differences seen in people over time), test-taking effects (resulting from repeated exposure to the same test/instrument), flaws in instrumentation, selection bias (in the absence of random assignment), and statistical regression (tendency for extreme scores on any measure to move toward the mean).
Title: Criterion 6: Appropriateness of Analysis.
Content: Appropriate analysis is necessary to make an inference that an intervention caused reported outcomes.
A Restart button allows the user to restart the animation.