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Intervention Summary

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Nurturing Parenting Programs

The Nurturing Parenting Programs (NPP) are family-based programs for the prevention and treatment of child abuse and neglect. The programs were developed to help families who have been identified by child welfare agencies for past child abuse and neglect or who are at high risk for child abuse and neglect. The goals of NPP are to:

  • Increase parents' sense of self-worth, personal empowerment, empathy, bonding, and attachment.
  • Increase the use of alternative strategies to harsh and abusive disciplinary practices.
  • Increase parents' knowledge of age-appropriate developmental expectations.
  • Reduce abuse and neglect rates.

NPP instruction is based on psychoeducational and cognitive-behavioral approaches to learning and focuses on "re-parenting," or helping parents learn new patterns of parenting to replace their existing, learned, abusive patterns. By completing questionnaires and participating in discussion, role-play, and audiovisual exercises, participants learn how to nurture themselves as individuals and in turn build their nurturing family and parenting skills as dads, moms, sons, and daughters. Participants develop their awareness, knowledge, and skills in five areas: (1) age-appropriate expectations; (2) empathy, bonding, and attachment; (3) nonviolent nurturing discipline; (4) self-awareness and self-worth; and (5) empowerment, autonomy, and healthy independence. Participating families attend sessions either at home or in a group format with other families. Group sessions combine concurrent separate experiences for parents and children with shared "family nurturing time." In home-based sessions, parents and children meet separately and jointly during a 90-minute lesson once per week for 15 weeks.

Two group facilitators are recommended for every seven adults participating in the program. Two additional group facilitators are recommended for every 10 children participating. NPP can be implemented by professionals or paraprofessionals in fields such as social work, education, recreation, and psychology who have undergone NPP facilitator training and have related experience.

Multiple NPPs have been developed for various age groups and family circumstances (see the Adaptations section below for more information). The studies reviewed for this summary involved the NPPs designed for (1) parents and their children 0-5 years and (2) parents and their school-age children 5-12 years.

Descriptive Information

Areas of Interest Mental health promotion
Mental health treatment
Substance abuse prevention
Outcomes Review Date: April 2010
1: Parenting attitudes, knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors
2: Recidivism of child abuse and neglect
3: Children's behavior and attitudes toward parenting
4: Family interaction
Outcome Categories Family/relationships
Social functioning
Trauma/injuries
Ages 6-12 (Childhood)
26-55 (Adult)
Genders Male
Female
Races/Ethnicities American Indian or Alaska Native
Black or African American
Hispanic or Latino
White
Race/ethnicity unspecified
Settings Home
Other community settings
Geographic Locations Urban
Suburban
Rural and/or frontier
Implementation History Initial research and development for the Nurturing Parenting Programs occurred in the early 1980s. National implementation began in 1985. Over the past 30 years, about 14,000 agencies have implemented NPP worldwide, reaching an estimated 1.1 million families. Approximately 30 studies have been published or described in evaluation reports. NPPs are currently being implemented in all 50 States plus Australia, Belgium, Bermuda, Canada, Chile, England, France, Greenland, Guam, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, the Philippines, Portugal, Scotland, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, the Virgin Islands, and the West Indies.
NIH Funding/CER Studies Partially/fully funded by National Institutes of Health: Yes
Evaluated in comparative effectiveness research studies: Yes
Adaptations NPP materials have been translated into Arabic, Hmong, Kreyol (Haitian), and Spanish. Adaptations of NPP include:

  • Nurturing Program for Parents and Their Adolescents
  • Nurturing Program for Parents and Their Children with Health Challenges
  • Nurturing Program for Families in Substance Abuse Treatment and Recovery
  • Nurturing Program for Prenatal Families
  • Nurturing Program for Teen Parents and Their Young Children
  • Nurturing Skills for Families
  • Nurturing Skills for Teen Parents
  • ABC's School-Based Program for Parents and Their Children 5 to 8 Years
  • Community-Based Education in Nurturing Parenting
  • Family Nurturing Camp Weekend Experience
  • Nurturing America's Military Families
  • Nurturing Fathers Program
  • Nurturing God's Way, a parenting program for Christian families
Adverse Effects No adverse effects, concerns, or unintended consequences were identified by the developer.
IOM Prevention Categories Selective
Indicated

Quality of Research
Review Date: April 2010

Documents Reviewed

The documents below were reviewed for Quality of Research. The research point of contact can provide information regarding the studies reviewed and the availability of additional materials, including those from more recent studies that may have been conducted.

Study 1

Hodnett, R. H., Faulk, K., Dellinger, A., & Maher, E. (2009). Evaluation of the statewide implementation of a parent education program in Louisiana's child welfare agency: The Nurturing Parent Program for infants, toddlers, and preschool children. Final evaluation report submitted to Casey Family Foundations.

Study 2

Bavolek, S. J., Comstock, C. M., & McLaughlin J. W. (1983). The Nurturing Program: A validated approach for reducing dysfunctional family interactions. Final report submitted to the National Institute of Mental Health.

Study 3

Bavolek, S. J., Henderson, H. L., & Schultz, B. B. (1988). Reducing chronic neglect in Utah. Summary of neglect project from September 30, 1985, to December 30, 1987. Grant #90 CA 1161.02. Final report submitted to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect.

Supplementary Materials

Bavolek, S. J., & Keene, R. G. (1999). Validity and norm development. In Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory AAPI-2 Administration and Development Handbook (pp. 34-46). Park City, UT: Family Development Resources.

Broyles, G., Easter, L., Primak, K., & Shackford, L. (1992). Boulder County Department of Social Services Nurturing Program. Report for a project funded by the Boulder County, Colorado, Department of Social Services. Available at http://nurturevalidation.com/nppvss.html

Family Environment Scale. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://cps.nova.edu/~cpphelp/FES.html

16PF questionnaire. (2010, April). In Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/16PF_Questionnaire

Outcomes

Outcome 1: Parenting attitudes, knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors
Description of Measures Parenting attitudes, knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors were assessed using the following self-report measures:

  • Adult Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI), which assesses five constructs or aspects of parenting: (1) empathy toward children's needs, (2) belief in the use of corporal punishment, (3) parent-child role reversal (i.e., parent behaves as if helpless and needy and looks to his or her own children as though they were adults who could provide parental care and comfort), (4) expectations of children's developmental capabilities, and (5) attitudes toward children's power and independence (i.e., beliefs about the importance of obedience versus autonomy in children). Items in the AAPI have a 5-point Likert response category format, from strongly disagree to strongly agree.
  • Personality Factor (16PF), a standardized, norm-referenced inventory that assesses 16 factors of personality.
  • Nurturing Quiz, a multiple choice, criterion-referenced inventory designed to measure a parent's understanding of parenting techniques and strategies presented in NPP.
Key Findings In one study, participating families were referred to NPP by the State child welfare agency because of allegations of child abuse and/or neglect. The study found significant positive changes in parental attitudes in the following areas, as measured by the AAPI:

  • Parents developed more appropriate expectations of children's development (p < .00); the effect size for this finding was small (Cohen's d = 0.45).
  • Parents' empathic awareness of their children's needs increased (p < .00); the effect size for this finding was medium (Cohen's d = 0.71).
  • Parents became less supportive of using corporal punishment (p < .00); the effect size for this finding was medium (Cohen's d = 0.67).
  • Attitudes reflecting parent-child role reversal decreased (p < .00); the effect size for this finding was small (Cohen's d = 0.20).
  • Parents' attitudes toward children's power and independence improved (p < .00); the effect size for this finding was small (Cohen's d = 0.29).
In another study, participating families were referred to NPP by the State social services agency or Parents Anonymous groups because of abusive parent-child interactions. The study found significant changes from pre- to posttest in the following areas:

  • Data from the AAPI showed significant positive changes in parenting and child-rearing attitudes and behaviors. Specifically, parents participating in the NPP developed more appropriate developmental expectations of children, an increased empathic awareness of children's needs, more appropriate attitudes toward the use of corporal punishment, and a decrease in parent-child role reversal behaviors (all p values < .05). The improvement in empathic attitudes toward children's needs and differentiation of appropriate parent-child roles was maintained through 1-year follow-up. Further, attitudes toward the use of corporal punishment and inappropriate developmental expectations of children significantly improved from posttest to 1-year follow-up (p < .01).
  • Data from the 16PF showed significant increases in parents' enthusiasm (p < .01), social boldness (p < .01), and self-assuredness (p < .05) and significant decreases in radicalism (p < .05), anxiety (p < .02), and tough demeanor (i.e., insensitivity to other people; p < .05).
  • Data from the Nurturing Quiz indicated a significant increase in acquired knowledge related to behavior management concepts and techniques (p < .05).
In a third study, participating families were referred to NPP by the State social services agency or nonprofit social services organizations because of child neglect or neglect and abuse. Some were court-ordered to attend a parenting program based on their long-standing inability to change their neglecting parenting pattern. The study found significant changes from pre- to posttest in the following areas, as measured by the AAPI:

  • Parenting and child-rearing attitudes significantly improved, such that parents had more appropriate expectations of children, had more empathic awareness of children's needs, were less supportive of using corporal punishment, and developed a more appropriate view of the role of children and parents in a family (p values < .001).
  • Parents' knowledge of parenting and child-rearing techniques improved significantly (p < .001).
No significant changes in parents' personality, as measured by the 16PF, were seen over the course of the study.
Studies Measuring Outcome Study 1, Study 2, Study 3
Study Designs Preexperimental
Quality of Research Rating 3.1 (0.0-4.0 scale)
Outcome 2: Recidivism of child abuse and neglect
Description of Measures Recidivism was identified by determining whether participants were involved in any abuse and neglect incidents after completing the NPP treatment program. Data on incidents were obtained from the State administrative data system used to capture information on caregivers who are or have been the subject of investigations of alleged child abuse or neglect.
Key Findings In one study, participating families were referred to NPP by the State child welfare agency because of allegations of child abuse and/or neglect. The study found that a high dosage of treatment (at least 14 sessions of NPP) reduced child abuse and neglect recidivism by 73%, a significant improvement compared with results for lower levels of attendance (p < .05).

In another study, participating families were referred to NPP by the State social services agency or Parents Anonymous groups because of abusive parent-child interactions. The recidivism rate in this study was 7.36%; only 7 of the 95 adults who completed the program were charged with additional counts of child abuse and neglect after participation in the program.
Studies Measuring Outcome Study 1, Study 2
Study Designs Preexperimental
Quality of Research Rating 2.9 (0.0-4.0 scale)
Outcome 3: Children's behavior and attitudes toward parenting
Description of Measures Children's behavior and attitudes toward parenting were assessed using the following self-report measures:

  • Children's Parenting Inventory (CPI), an inventory based on the AAPI and designed for use with young children. Like the AAPI, the tool assesses views and attitudes toward parenting styles and behaviors. The children respond to parenting examples with "I agree," "I'm not sure," or "I disagree."
  • Early School Personality Questionnaire (ESPQ) or Children's Personality Questionnaire (CPQ), based on the 16PF personality inventory. The questionnaires are designed to assess primary personality traits in children that are useful in understanding and evaluating personal, social, and academic development, as well as creativity, emotional stability, self-concept, excitability, and apprehension.
Key Findings Participating families were referred to NPP by the State social services agency or Parents Anonymous groups because of abusive parent-child interactions. Significant changes from pre- to posttest were found in the following areas:

  • Data from the CPI showed a significant increase in children's self-awareness and an improvement in parent-child role reversal (p values < .05). Significant improvements in self-awareness were also seen from posttest to 1-year follow-up (p < .01); children also became less supportive of corporal punishment from posttest to 1-year follow-up (p < .01).
  • Data from the personality questionnaire indicated significant increases in children's assertiveness (p < .05) and enthusiasm (p < .01) and a significant decrease in tough demeanor (i.e., insensitivity to other people; p < .03).
Studies Measuring Outcome Study 2
Study Designs Preexperimental
Quality of Research Rating 3.0 (0.0-4.0 scale)
Outcome 4: Family interaction
Description of Measures Family interaction was assessed using the following measures:

  • Family Environment Scale (FES), a 90-item self-report inventory that examines the social and environmental characteristics of a family, focusing on three areas: relationships, personal growth, and system maintenance.
  • Observational Data Collection Form, used to collect data during 1-year follow-up, in-home observations of family interactions. Two observers were assigned to conduct each in-home observation. One observer recorded data, and the other facilitated family activities as part of the intervention. Each observation period lasted 2 hours and entailed structured and unstructured family activities. All family members and interactions were coded. Observers were trained to identify verbal and nonverbal patterns of behavior (e.g., disinterest/coldness, interest/warmth, expression of feelings/needs).
Key Findings In one study, participating families were referred to NPP by the State social services agency or Parents Anonymous groups because of abusive parent-child interactions. The combination of self-reported data from the FES and observational data from in-home visits revealed significant pre- to posttest improvements in family cohesion (p < .03), family expressiveness (p < .03), and family independence (p < .01), while family conflict decreased significantly (p < .01). From posttest to 1-year follow-up, significant increases were found in family cohesion (p < .05), family expressiveness (p < .04), and family organization (p < .02), while family conflict decreased significantly (p < .05).

In another study, participating families were referred to NPP by the State social services agency or nonprofit social services organizations because of child neglect or neglect and abuse. Some were court-ordered to attend a parenting program based on their long-standing inability to change their neglecting parenting pattern. Self-reported data from the FES showed significant positive changes in family interaction patterns from pretest to posttest. Family cohesion, expressiveness, organization, independence, achievement, reaction, and cultural and moral interactions increased, while family conflict and control decreased (p values < .001).
Studies Measuring Outcome Study 2, Study 3
Study Designs Preexperimental
Quality of Research Rating 3.2 (0.0-4.0 scale)

Study Populations

The following populations were identified in the studies reviewed for Quality of Research.

Study Age Gender Race/Ethnicity
Study 1 Data not reported/available 75% Female
25% Male
58% White
42% Race/ethnicity unspecified
Study 2 6-12 (Childhood)
26-55 (Adult)
54% Female
46% Male
90% White
6% Black or African American
2% American Indian or Alaska Native
1% Hispanic or Latino
1% Race/ethnicity unspecified
Study 3 26-55 (Adult) 73% Female
27% Male
89% White
8% Hispanic or Latino
3% American Indian or Alaska Native
1% Race/ethnicity unspecified

Quality of Research Ratings by Criteria (0.0-4.0 scale)

External reviewers independently evaluate the Quality of Research for an intervention's reported results using six criteria:

  1. Reliability of measures
  2. Validity of measures
  3. Intervention fidelity
  4. Missing data and attrition
  5. Potential confounding variables
  6. Appropriateness of analysis

For more information about these criteria and the meaning of the ratings, see Quality of Research.

Outcome Reliability
of Measures
Validity
of Measures
Fidelity Missing
Data/Attrition
Confounding
Variables
Data
Analysis
Overall
Rating
1: Parenting attitudes, knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors 4.0 4.0 2.6 2.7 1.9 3.4 3.1
2: Recidivism of child abuse and neglect 3.5 3.5 2.4 2.8 1.9 3.4 2.9
3: Children's behavior and attitudes toward parenting 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.0 2.0 3.5 3.0
4: Family interaction 3.9 4.0 3.3 2.9 2.0 3.5 3.2

Study Strengths

The instruments used in the studies have adequate to very good psychometric properties. Information was provided about the methods and procedures used to design and implement the intervention and evaluate it in multiple sites. The intervention and its key components were grounded in theory and well structured. In all the studies, the interventionists were trained and supervised. Efforts made to minimize attrition and missing data were successful. The analyses used were appropriate.

Study Weaknesses

The one-group pretest-posttest design selected for the study, while appropriate for evaluating programs in the early stage of development, is inherently limited in that it does not control for many threats to internal validity. The authors reported that monitoring intervention fidelity across sites was challenging, and many sites likely did not fully adhere to the intervention model.

Readiness for Dissemination
Review Date: April 2010

Materials Reviewed

The materials below were reviewed for Readiness for Dissemination. The implementation point of contact can provide information regarding implementation of the intervention and the availability of additional, updated, or new materials.

Babeshoff, K., & Dellinger-Bavolek, J. (2008). Instruction in the art of infant massage: Nurturing touch (3rd ed.). Park City, UT: Family Development Resources.

Bavolek, S. J. (1999). Nurturing Program: Activities manual for parents (4th ed.). Park City, UT: Family Development Resources.

Bavolek, S. J. (1999). Nurturing Program: Activities manual for school-age children (4th ed.). Park City, UT: Family Development Resources.

Bavolek, S. J. (1999). Nurturing Parenting: Teaching empathy, self-worth, and discipline to school-age children. A parent handbook (4th ed.). Park City, UT: Family Development Resources.

Bavolek, S. J. (2005). I'm only doing this for your own good. Alternatives to Spanking series: Part 2--Infants toddlers & preschoolers [DVD]. Park City, UT: Family Development Resources.

Bavolek, S. J. (2005). Nurturing Parenting for Parents of School-Age Children: 5 DVD set. Park City, UT: Family Development Productions.

Bavolek, S. J. (2005). Red, white, and bruises. Alternatives to Spanking series: Part 1--Rationale for spanking children [DVD]. Park City, UT: Family Development Resources.

Bavolek, S. J. (2008). Family Social History Questionnaire (FSHQ). Park City, UT: Family Development Resources.

Bavolek, S. J. (2008). Family Social History Questionnaire (FSHQ): Group summary worksheet. Park City, UT: Family Development Resources.

Bavolek, S. J. (2009). Nurturing the families of the world: Nurturing Parenting easy reader handbook. English edition (2nd ed.). Asheville, NC, and Park City, UT: Family Development Resources.

Bavolek, S. J. (n.d.). Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI-2) professional norms. Park City, UT: Family Development Resources.

Bavolek, S. J. (n.d.). Successful administration of the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI-2) [PowerPoint slides].

Bavolek, S. J. (n.d.). Successful implementation of the Nurturing Parenting Programs [PowerPoint slides].

Bavolek, S. J., & Keene, R. G. (2009). Nurturing Skills Competency Scale (NSCS). Park City, UT: Family Development Resources.

Bavolek, S. J., & Dellinger-Bavolek, J. (2004). Nurturing Parenting for Infants, Toddlers, and Preschoolers: Building empathy, self-worth, personal power, and cooperation in children and families [DVD]. Park City, UT: Family Development Resources.

Bavolek, S. J., & Dellinger-Bavolek, J. (2009). Nurturing Program for Parents & Their Infants, Toddlers & Preschoolers. Facilitators instructional manual for teaching children (5th ed.). Asheville, NC, and Park City, UT: Family Development Resources.

Bavolek, S. J., & Dellinger-Bavolek, J. (2009). Nurturing Program for Parents & Their Infants, Toddlers & Preschoolers. Facilitators instructional manual for teaching parents: Group based program (4th ed.). Asheville, NC, and Park City, UT: Family Development Resources.

Bavolek, S. J., & Dellinger-Bavolek, J. (2009). Nurturing Program for Parents & Their Infants, Toddlers & Preschoolers. Home visitors instructional manual: Home based program (4th ed.). Asheville, NC, and Park City, UT: Family Development Resources.

Bavolek, S. J., & Dellinger-Bavolek, J. (2009). Nurturing Program for Parents & Their Infants, Toddlers & Preschoolers. Parent handbook (4th ed.). Asheville, NC, and Park City, UT: Family Development Resources.

Bavolek, S. J., & Kaplan, F. (2005). This hurts me more than it hurts you. Alternatives to Spanking series: Part 3--Children 4 to 12 years [DVD]. Park City, UT: Family Development Resources.

Bavolek, S. J., & Keene, R. G. (1999). Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI-2), Form A. Park City, UT: Family Development Resources.

Bavolek, S. J., & Keene, R. G. (1999). Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI-2), Form B. Park City, UT: Family Development Resources.

Bavolek, S. J., & Keene, R. G. (2001). Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI-2): Administration and development handbook (3rd ed.). Park City, UT: Family Development Resources.

Family Development Resources. (1991). Nurturing game [Board game]. Park City, UT: Author.

Family Development Resources. (2007). Community based education in Nurturing Parenting: 10 individual parenting lessons for promoting a community philosophy of nurturing for the primary prevention of child abuse and neglect. Version 3 [CD-ROM]. Park City, UT: Author.

Family Development Resources. (2007). Nurturing Parenting Programs family log. Park City, UT: Author.

Family Development Resources. (2007). Nurturing Parenting Program for Parents with Infants, Toddlers, and Preschoolers: Nurturing quiz. Park City, UT: Author.

Family Development Resources. (2007). Nurturing Parenting Program for Parents with Infants, Toddlers, and Preschoolers: Nurturing quiz instruction sheet. Park City, UT: Author.

Family Development Resources. (2007). Nurturing Parenting Programs program evaluation form. Park City, UT: Author.

Family Development Resources. (2007). Nurturing touch: Introduction in the art of infant and child massage [DVD]. Park City, UT: Author.

Family Development Resources. (2008). Nurturing Parenting Program for Parents and Their School-Age Children: Nurturing quiz. Park City, UT: Author.

Family Development Resources. (2008). Nurturing Parenting Program for Parents and Their School-Age Children: Nurturing quiz instruction sheet. Park City, UT: Author.

Family Development Resources. (2008). Nurturing Parenting promotional DVD. Park City, UT: Author.

Family Development Resources. (2008). Nurturing Program for Parents and Their Infants, Toddlers and Preschoolers: Family record form. Park City, UT: Family Development Resources.

Family Development Resources. (2008). The Nurturing Parenting Programs for the Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse & Neglect: Facilitator's workbook for participants of the facilitator workshop (9th ed.). Park City, UT: Author

Family Development Resources. (2008). The Nurturing Parenting Programs for the Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse & Neglect: Trainer's manual for conducting the facilitator workshop (9th ed.). Park City, UT: Author.

Family Development Resources. (2009). Family Nurturing Journal (FNJ): Group based program. A document and CD for parents. Park City, UT: Author.

Family Development Resources. (2009). Family Nurturing Journal (FNJ): Home based program. A document and CD for parents. Park City, UT: Author.

Family Development Resources. (2009). Family Nurturing Plan (FNP): Group based program. A document and CD for facilitator use. Park City, UT: Author.

Family Development Resources. (2009). Family Nurturing Plan (FNP): Home based program. A document and CD for home-visitors. Park City, UT: Author.

Family Development Resources. (2009). Marketing tools [CD-ROM]. Park City, UT: Author.

Family Development Resources. (2009). Nurturing Parenting Program for Parents and Their Infants, Toddlers & Preschoolers: Individual attendance record. Park City, UT: Author.

Family Development Resources. (2009). The Nurturing Parenting Programs 2009 catalog. Asheville, NC: Author.

Family Development Resources. (n.d.). Contact information form for Nurturing Parents and Their School-Age Children. Park City, UT: Author.

Family Development Resources. (n.d.). Nurturing Parenting information folder. Park City, UT: Author.

Family Development Resources. (n.d.). Nurturing Parenting marketing brochure. Park City, UT: Author.

Family Development Resources. (n.d.). Nurturing Parenting Programs: Family service plan quarterly summary report. Park City, UT: Author.

Family Development Resources. (n.d.). Nurturing Parenting Programs: Monthly summary report. Park City, UT: Author.

Kaplan, F. B., & Bavolek, S. J. (2007). Nurturing Parenting Programs: Program implementation manual & resource guide. Asheville, NC, and Park City, UT: Family Development Resources.

Program Web site, http://www.nurturingparentingprogram.com

Readiness for Dissemination Ratings by Criteria (0.0-4.0 scale)

External reviewers independently evaluate the intervention's Readiness for Dissemination using three criteria:

  1. Availability of implementation materials
  2. Availability of training and support resources
  3. Availability of quality assurance procedures

For more information about these criteria and the meaning of the ratings, see Readiness for Dissemination.

Implementation
Materials
Training and Support
Resources
Quality Assurance
Procedures
Overall
Rating
4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0

Dissemination Strengths

Implementation is supported by a wealth of extremely well-designed, high-quality, and easy-to-understand materials and resources. The Program Implementation Manual and Resource Guide functions as a comprehensive, step-by-step roadmap to implementation. Further, treatment materials are well developed and age- and parent-appropriate. The program Web site has readily accessible information, including free information to educate interested parties about the program to assist with decisions on which elements of the program to implement. The facilitator training and Training for Trainers program provide multiple opportunities to implement the program successfully. Many training sessions are taught by the principal developer, but the Web site also includes a list of certified trainers. Training materials are very good: Easy reader editions are provided for parents in a respectful way, and materials for children are simple and meet the child's educational and maturity level. The developer has set very high standards with a detailed collection of materials to support and maintain implementation with fidelity. The various high-quality assessment tools and inventories provide objective data for ongoing quality assessment and improvement activities.

Dissemination Weaknesses

No weaknesses were identified by reviewers.

Costs

The cost information below was provided by the developer. Although this cost information may have been updated by the developer since the time of review, it may not reflect the current costs or availability of items (including newly developed or discontinued items). The implementation point of contact can provide current information and discuss implementation requirements.

Item Description Cost Required by Developer
Materials set (includes all materials needed for implementation and quality assurance) $300-$2,000 depending on the program selected Yes
3-day, on- or off-site facilitator training $250-$325 per participant Yes
4-day, on-or off-site training of trainers $350-$400 per participant No
Phone or email technical assistance Free No
On-site technical assistance About $500-$750 per day plus travel expenses No

Additional Information

The cost of running a high-quality NPP varies based on the program format and number of sessions provided. The initial set of materials can be used to implement the program to approximately 15 families. The majority of program materials are reusable.

Replications

Selected citations are presented below. An asterisk indicates that the document was reviewed for Quality of Research.

Alvy, K., & Steele, M. (1992). AT&T sponsored nurturing parenting program for teen parents. Unpublished manuscript.

Bavolek, S. (1985). Validation of the Nurturing Parenting Programs for parents and their children birth to five years: Increasing the nurturing parenting skills of families in Head Start. Park City, UT: Family Development Resources.

Bavolek, S. (1987). Validation of the nurturing parenting program for parents and adolescents: Building nurturing interactions in families experiencing parent-adolescent conflict. Park City, UT: Family Development Resources.

Cowen, P. S. (2001). Effectiveness of a parent education intervention for at-risk families. Journal of the Society for Pediatric Nursing, 6(2), 73-82.  Pub Med icon

Devall, E. (2004). Positive parenting for high risk families. Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences, 96(4), 22-28.

Family Services of Milwaukee. (1997). Outcome evaluation of Family Service of Milwaukee Parenting Education programs. Unpublished manuscript.

Matlak, S. (2003). A quantitative analysis of Pikes Peak Family Connections Nurturing Parenting Program. Unpublished manuscript.

Palusci, V. J., Crum, P., Bliss, R., & Bavolek, S. (2008). Changes in parenting attitudes and knowledge among inmates and other at-risk populations after a family nurturing program. Children and Youth Services Review, 30(1), 79-89.

Primer, V. (1991). Long-term impact of the Nurturing Program: a comparison of parenting attitudes of abusive and neglectful parents pre-program, post-program, and one year post-program follow-up. Unpublished manuscript.

SAFEchild. (2002). An evaluation of the Nurturing Parenting Programs at SAFEchild. Executive summary. Raleigh, NC: Author.

Contact Information

To learn more about implementation or research, contact:
Stephen J. Bavolek, Ph.D.
(800) 688-5822
fdr@nurturingparenting.com

Consider these Questions to Ask (PDF, 54KB) as you explore the possible use of this intervention.

Web Site(s):