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Intervention Summary

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Interactive Journaling

Interactive Journaling is a goal-directed, client-centered model that aims to reduce substance abuse and substance-related behaviors, such as recidivism, by guiding adults and youth with substance use disorders through a process of written self-reflection. The model is based on structured and expressive writing techniques, principles of motivational interviewing, cognitive-behavioral interventions, and the integration of the transtheoretical model of behavior change. The approach helps participants modify their behavior as they progress through the stages of change that underlie the transtheoretical model: (1) precontemplation (not intending to begin the change in behavior in the next 6 months), (2) contemplation (intending to begin the change in behavior in the next 6 months), (3) preparation (intending to begin the change in behavior in the next 30 days), (4) action (practicing the behavior for less than 6 months), and (5) maintenance (practicing the behavior for at least 6 months).

The focus of the Interactive Journaling model is the participant journal, which includes worksheets with nonconfrontational questions intended to help participants think and then write about their substance use problem and its association with their current negative life situation, which may include incarceration or arrest for driving under the influence (DUI). Using the journal, participants explore and resolve a variety of topics, including ambivalence toward their substance use, recognition that they have a substance use problem, the connection between substance use and their current situation, health and other consequences of substance use, and irresponsible behavior while under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs. Questions also guide participants in considering their motivations for change, exploring behavior change options, and developing a plan with target behavior-related goals and a timeline for achieving these goals.

The journals used in Interactive Journaling vary in length on the basis of the target population, the setting, and the type of delivery. Interactive Journaling can be delivered as a self-guided program, or it can be facilitated through one-on-one sessions or in a group format; it can also be used as part of a primary substance abuse treatment or prevention program.

Two studies were reviewed for this summary. One study included a 24-page journal titled "Changing Course," which was delivered as a self-guided program for reducing recidivism among male inmates who had substance use dependence, were incarcerated at a local jail, and had at least one other arrest in the previous 12 months. Another study included a 64-page journal, which was delivered as the basis of a 12-hour, facilitated course curriculum for reducing recidivism among first-time DUI offenders.

Descriptive Information

Areas of Interest Substance abuse prevention
Substance abuse treatment
Co-occurring disorders
Outcomes Review Date: February 2013
1: Recidivism
Outcome Categories Crime/delinquency
Ages 18-25 (Young adult)
26-55 (Adult)
55+ (Older adult)
Genders Male
Female
Races/Ethnicities American Indian or Alaska Native
Black or African American
White
Race/ethnicity unspecified
Settings Outpatient
Correctional
Other community settings
Geographic Locations Urban
Suburban
Rural and/or frontier
Tribal
Implementation History In 1989, The Change Companies (originally Serenity Support Services), in partnership with professional staffs at 25 hospital-based addiction and mental health programs, created and delivered the first Interactive Journaling resource. Annually, over 3,500 sites use Interactive Journaling curricula in their behavior change programming. To date, Interactive Journaling has served approximately 20 million individuals in the areas of treatment, corrections, impaired driving, prevention education, and health care, as well as military personnel in the U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marines. The program has been implemented in all 50 States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands and in Australia, the Bahamas, Bermuda, Canada, New Zealand, and Thailand.
NIH Funding/CER Studies Partially/fully funded by National Institutes of Health: Yes
Evaluated in comparative effectiveness research studies: Yes
Adaptations

Interactive Journaling has been adapted for use with the following populations:

  • For incarcerated offenders--BRAVE Program, Challenge Program, Breaking the Cycle: Nonresidential Drug Abuse Program, Choice and Change and Freedom From Drugs, The Corrective Actions Journaling System, and Managing Co-Occurring Disorders: An Integrated Approach Series
  • For offenders at prison release--Getting It Right and The Courage to Change
  • For incarcerated women offenders with substance dependence--Residential Drug Abuse Program
  • For short-term incarcerated offenders--Changing Course
  • For youth offenders--Forward Thinking Program
  • For youth dealing with alcohol and other drug-related violations--Alternatives Interactive Journaling
  • For gang populations--The Choice Is Yours
  • For alcohol-impaired drivers--24 adaptations of Interactive Journaling
  • For women--Women in Recovery and Trauma in Life Interactive Journaling
  • For teenage girls--Voices, a program to strengthen sense of self and build skills for healthy development (adapted in collaboration with Stephanie Covington)
  • For youth--Keep It Direct and Simple (KIDS), Helping Children Thrive, and In My House
  • For students entering college--CHOICES, an alcohol abuse prevention program (adapted in collaboration with Alan Marlatt and George Parks)
  • For faith-based populations--Salvation Army Adult Rehabilitation Centers Interactive Journaling Series, ARC Interactive Journaling: French-Canadian Series, Partners in Prevention: Preparing Jewish Youth for a Drug-Free Journey, and Live Free
  • For Native Americans of the Oglala Lakota Nation with substance use problems--Strengthening the Spirit
  • For Canada's First Nation populations--The Courage to Change Interactive Journaling Program-Saskatchewan Series
  • For Haitian-Creole populations--The Drug, Alcohol, Traffic Education (DATE) Program (translated into Haitian-Creole and Spanish)
  • For Hispanic populations--My Personal Journal-Adult Treatment (Mi Diario Personal), Choice and Change-Drug Education (Decisiones y Cambio), Women in Recovery (Mujeres en Recuperacion), Transition Skills (Habilidades para la Transcion), and numerous alcohol-impaired driver Interactive Journaling curricula that have been translated into Spanish and culturally modified for use with these populations
  • For populations with co-occurring disorders--Self-Management: A Guide to Your Feelings, Motivations, and Positive Mental Health-Addiction Treatment Edition (adapted in collaboration with William Miller and David Mee-Lee)
  • For those who want to quit smoking--"I Don't Smoke!" Interactive Journaling
  • For compulsive gamblers--A 12-Step Guide for Compulsive Gamblers
  • For individuals in residential or community-based programs--My Personal Health Journal
Adverse Effects No adverse effects, concerns, or unintended consequences were identified by the developer.
IOM Prevention Categories Indicated

Quality of Research
Review Date: February 2013

Documents Reviewed

The documents below were reviewed for Quality of Research. The research point of contact can provide information regarding the studies reviewed and the availability of additional materials, including those from more recent studies that may have been conducted.

Study 1

Proctor, S. L., Hoffmann, N. G., & Allison, S. (2012). The effectiveness of Interactive Journaling in reducing recidivism among substance-dependent jail inmates. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 56(2), 317-332.  Pub Med icon

Study 2

Loudenburg, R. (2008). South Dakota Public Safety DUI Program: Four year evaluation report. Data period January 2004 through December 2007 (Prepared for the Office of Highway Safety, South Dakota Department of Public Safety). Salem, SD: Mountain Plains Evaluation.

Supplementary Materials

Campbell, T. C., Hoffmann, N. G., Hoffmann, T. D., & Gillaspy, J. A. (2005). UNCOPE: A screen for substance dependence among state prison inmates. Prison Journal, 85(1), 7-17.

Hoffmann, N. G. (2000). CAAPE (Comprehensive Addictions and Psychological Evaluation) manual. Carson City, NV: The Change Companies.

Hoffmann, N. G. (2000). Comprehensive Addictions and Psychological Evaluation (CAAPE) summary data and survey items. Carson City, NV: The Change Companies.

Hoffmann, N. G., Hunt, D. E., Rhodes, W. M., & Riley, K. J. (2003). UNCOPE: A brief substance dependence screen for use with arrestees. Journal of Drug Issues, 33(1), 29-44.

Miller, W. R. (2013). Interactive Journaling as a clinical tool: Description and research. Unpublished manuscript.

Proctor, S. L., Corwin, C. J., Hoffmann, N. G., & Allison, S. (2009). A tool to engage jail inmates: A trademarked journaling process shows promise in giving offenders insight on their substance use. Addiction Professional, 7(1), 22-25.

Outcomes

Outcome 1: Recidivism
Description of Measures In one study, recidivism was defined as the rearrest and booking of a study inmate at the Buncombe County Detention Facility (BCDF) in the 12 months after study entry. Data were obtained from the management information system (MIS) of the BCDF, which is the only jail facility available for the local city police department and the county sheriff's office. These data were used to calculate the percentage of study participants who were rearrested and booked at the BCDF.

In another study, recidivism was defined as a rearrest for a DUI offense in the study's 4-year follow-up period. Data were obtained from South Dakota DUI-related arrest records extracted from the Unified Judicial System database for the 2004-2007 timeframe. These data were used to calculate (1) the percentage of study participants who were rearrested for a DUI offense and (2) the rate of recidivism, monitored through the use of a survival function that compared the length of time between first and subsequent DUI arrests for participants.
Key Findings In a randomized clinical trial with male inmates incarcerated in a county jail facility, participants who were identified as being dependent on one or more substances (according to the Comprehensive Addictions and Psychological Evaluation Manual, which follows DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria) and whose current offense was related to substance involvement, with a minimum of one prior incarceration in the previous 12 months, were assigned to the intervention or comparison condition. Inmates in the intervention group received a 24-page interactive journal titled "Changing Course" from a research staff assistant, who provided a 10-minute introduction on the contents of the journal and the journaling process. Inmates in the comparison group received a government booklet on substance use disorders and criminal behavior, with information on substance use and related problems and a telephone number for a national hotline that they could call when released from jail if they were interested in treatment services. Rearrests for each study participant were tracked through the BCDF MIS for the 12-month period following study entry. In the 12 months after study entry, the percentage of participants rearrested and booked at the BCDF was lower for the intervention group than the comparison group (51% vs. 66%; p < .05).

In a retrospective, quasi-experimental study, first-time DUI offenders (18 years and older) in two study conditions were matched and compared. Participants in the intervention group received the South Dakota Public Safety DUI Interactive Journaling course curriculum from 2004 through 2007. The curriculum consisted of a 64-page journal and was delivered through six 2-hour or four 3-hour classroom-type group sessions by 13 State alcohol/drug treatment agencies using the same structured facilitator guide. Participants received a journal at the first session, and during each session, they completed writing elements in the journal under the guidance of the course facilitator. Writing assignments were given between course sessions, and participants were encouraged to practice and discuss the curriculum content with a concerned friend, family member, and/or significant other outside of the sessions. Participants in the control group were first-time DUI offenders (with arrests in 2003) who had not received the Interactive Journaling course curriculum. Findings included the following, from 2004 through 2007:

  • Among all participants, the percentage of those rearrested for DUI was lower for the intervention group than the control group (13.5% vs. 18.5%; p < .001), and the rate of recidivism was slower for the intervention group than the control group (p < .0001).
  • Among male participants, the percentage of those rearrested for DUI was lower for the intervention group than the control group (15.1% vs. 20.3%; p < .001), and the rate of recidivism was slower for the intervention group than the control group (p < .0001).
  • Among female participants, the percentage of those rearrested for DUI was lower for the intervention group than the control group (10.4% vs. 15.2%; p < .001), and the rate of recidivism was slower for the intervention group than the control group (p < .0001).
  • Among 21- to 29-year-old participants, the percentage of those rearrested for DUI was lower for the intervention group than the control group (15.2% vs. 20.3%; p < .001), and the rate of recidivism was slower for the intervention group than the control group (p < .0001).
  • Among 30- to 39-year-old participants, the percentage of those rearrested for DUI was lower for the intervention group than the control group (10.9% vs. 17.3%; p < .001), and the rate of recidivism was slower for the intervention group than the control group (p < .0001).
  • Among 40- to 49-year-old participants, the percentage of those rearrested for DUI was lower for the intervention group than the control group (12.1% vs. 17.2%; p = .002), and the rate of recidivism was slower for the intervention group than the control group (p < .0001).
  • Among 50- to 59-year-old participants, the percentage of those rearrested for DUI was lower for the intervention group than the control group (7.3% vs. 12.2%; p = .013), and the rate of recidivism was slower for the intervention group than the control group (p = .0023).
  • Among 60- to 90-year-old participants, the percentage of those rearrested for DUI was lower for the intervention group than the control group (2.2% vs. 9.5%; p = .011); however, there was no significant difference between groups in regard to the rate of recidivism.
Studies Measuring Outcome Study 1, Study 2
Study Designs Experimental, Quasi-experimental
Quality of Research Rating 2.5 (0.0-4.0 scale)

Study Populations

The following populations were identified in the studies reviewed for Quality of Research.

Study Age Gender Race/Ethnicity
Study 1 26-55 (Adult) 100% Male 73.2% White
23.5% Black or African American
3.3% Race/ethnicity unspecified
Study 2 18-25 (Young adult)
26-55 (Adult)
55+ (Older adult)
68.8% Male
27.4% Female
85% White
8.3% American Indian or Alaska Native
6.6% Race/ethnicity unspecified

Quality of Research Ratings by Criteria (0.0-4.0 scale)

External reviewers independently evaluate the Quality of Research for an intervention's reported results using six criteria:

  1. Reliability of measures
  2. Validity of measures
  3. Intervention fidelity
  4. Missing data and attrition
  5. Potential confounding variables
  6. Appropriateness of analysis

For more information about these criteria and the meaning of the ratings, see Quality of Research.

Outcome Reliability
of Measures
Validity
of Measures
Fidelity Missing
Data/Attrition
Confounding
Variables
Data
Analysis
Overall
Rating
1: Recidivism 2.5 2.5 1.8 3.5 2.3 2.8 2.5

Study Strengths

Recidivism was calculated from arrest data entered into standardized databases regulated by the criminal justice system at a county level in one study and at a State level in another study, providing both a certain level of reliability (owing to the legal necessity of recording arrests accurately) and validity (owing to the total independence of the investigators). The accurate extraction of arrest data from databases by research assistants was independently verified, and there is construct validity for definitions of arrests on the basis of the criminal justice legal system. In a study with first-time DUI offenders, the investigators and alcohol/drug treatment agencies delivering the curriculum worked together to train instructors and document pre- and postintervention changes in knowledge and attitudes about substance use and driving with 1-year follow-up assessments. There were no missing arrest data for the immediate catchment area of either study owing to the record databases. One study used random assignment (i.e., a coin toss), which generally controlled for many potential confounding variables. One study used a sophisticated survival analysis to model the longitudinal recidivism data from participants in both study conditions.

Study Weaknesses

Neither study provided formal reliability or validity estimates for the arrest data in the database nor for the subsequent extraction of the arrest data. There was no formal measurement of intervention fidelity in either study. In one study, there was no information as to what was said during the research assistant's 10-minute talk with participants regarding the journal, no effort was made to determine whether participants actually wrote in their journals, and no feedback was provided to participants by a staff person. In another study, there was no tracking of whether participants wrote in their journals, and there was no tracking of the feedback participants received about what they wrote. Because it is not known how much participants (particularly those with reading or writing deficits) wrote in their journals, it is difficult to know how tightly coupled the actual journaling is to the recidivism outcome in either study. Additional confounding variables specific to study design cannot be ruled out in one study, which was a quasi-experimental retrospective review of database records limited to one State.

Readiness for Dissemination
Review Date: February 2013

Materials Reviewed

The materials below were reviewed for Readiness for Dissemination. The implementation point of contact can provide information regarding implementation of the intervention and the availability of additional, updated, or new materials.

Sample implementation and training materials:

  • Alaska Alcohol and Drug Information School:
    • The Change Companies & the State of Alaska. (2011). Alaska Alcohol and Drug Information School. Carson City, NV: The Change Companies.
    • The Change Companies & the State of Alaska. (2011). Instructor guide for Alaska Alcohol and Drug Information School. Carson City, NV: The Change Companies.
  • CHOICES About Alcohol:
    • The Change Companies, Marlatt, A., & Parks, G. (2010). CHOICES About Alcohol: A brief alcohol abuse prevention program [Participant journal].
    • The Change Companies, Marlatt, A., & Parks, G. (2010). CHOICES: Facilitation summary: A brief alcohol abuse prevention program.
    • The Change Companies. (n.d.). CHOICES: A brief alcohol abuse prevention program: Course evaluation. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (n.d.). CHOICES: Pre/post-test. Carson City, NV: Author.
  • Crow Nation:
    • The Change Companies. (2010). Facilitation training: Crow Nation: Adult & adolescent treatment: Interactive Journaling systems. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (2010). Implementation training: Crow Nation: Adult & adolescent treatment: Interactive Journaling systems. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (2011). Crow Nation training agenda. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (n.d.). Welcome: Crow Nation: Interactive Journaling implementation & facilitation training [PowerPoint slides]. Carson City, NV: Author.
  • Managing Co-Occurring Disorders: An Integrated Approach:
    • The Change Companies. (2005). Managing Co-Occurring Disorders: An Integrated Approach: Orientation [Participant journal]. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (2005). Managing Co-Occurring Disorders: An Integrated Approach: Orientation: Facilitator guide. Carson City, NV: Author.
  • Motivational-Educational-Experiential (MEE) Interactive Journaling System:
    • The Change Companies. (2008). Getting started [Participant journal]. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (2008). Implementing the getting started journal: Facilitator guide. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (2008). Recovery maintenance [Participant journal]. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (2011). Chemical Addictions Program, Inc.: Facilitation training on Interactive Journaling. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (2011). Chemical Addictions Program, Inc.: MEE Interactive Journaling System. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (2011). Chemical Addictions Program, Inc.: MEE Interactive Journaling System: Trainer's manual. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (n.d.). MEE Interactive Journaling system: Training resources [CD-ROM]. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (n.d.). Telephone orientation: MEE Interactive Journal series. Carson City, NV: Author.
  • New Mexico DWI Education Program:
    • The Change Companies. (2010). Booster training: New Mexico DWI Education Program: Department of Transportation Traffic Safety Bureau. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (2010). Welcome New Mexico Traffic Safety Bureau: Booster training [PowerPoint slides]. Carson City, NV: Author.
  • Residential Drug Abuse Program:
    • The Change Companies. (2004). Residential Drug Abuse Program: Facilitator guide for orientation. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (2004). Residential Drug Abuse Program: Orientation [Participant journal]. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (2004). Residential Drug Abuse Program: Recovery maintenance [Participant journal]. Carson City, NV: Author.
  • Responsible Decisions:
    • The Change Companies. (2009). Responsible Decisions: Impaired driving program [Participant journal]. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (2009). Responsible Decisions: Impaired driving program: Facilitator guide. Carson City, NV: Author.
  • Self-Management: A Guide to Your Feelings, Motivations, and Positive Mental Health: Addiction Treatment Edition:
    • Miller, W. R., & Mee-Lee, D. (2010). Self-Management: A Guide to Your Feelings, Motivations, and Positive Mental Health (Addiction Treatment Edition). Carson City, NV: The Change Companies.
    • Miller, W. R., & Mee-Lee, D. (2010). Self-Management: A Guide to Your Feelings, Motivations, and Positive Mental Health (Addiction Treatment Edition): Facilitator guide. Carson City, NV: The Change Companies.
  • South Dakota Public Safety DUI Program:
    • Cancer Prevention Research Center Transtheoretical Model: Detailed Overview of the Transtheoretical Model. Retrieved from http://www.uri.edu/research/cprc/TTM/detailedoverview.htm
    • Cognitive Behavior Therapy [Informational handout]
    • Lemus, F. D. (2006). Change is good. Paradigm, 2006(Winter), 8-10.
    • Lieb, S. (1991). Principles of adult learning. Vision, 1991(Fall).
    • Rollnick, S., & Miller, W. R. (2010). What is MI? Retrieved from http://motivationalinterview.net/clinical/whatismi.html
    • The Change Companies. (2008). Distant learning module: An introduction to Interactive Journaling [Training journal]. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (2009). Course evaluation: South Dakota Public Safety DUI Program. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (2009). Facilitator guide for the South Dakota Public Safety DUI Program. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (2009). Post-test: South Dakota Public Safety DUI Program. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (2009). Pre-test: South Dakota Public Safety DUI Program. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (2009). South Dakota: Pre-/post-test answer key. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (2009). South Dakota Public Safety DUI Program [Participant journal]. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (2009). South Dakota Public Safety DUI Program instructions. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (2011). Adult learning [Handout]. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (2011). Learning styles [Handout]. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (2011). Observation and feedback form. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (2011). Session design: South Dakota Public Safety DUI Program. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (2011). South Dakota Public Safety DUI Program: Booster training [Training workbook]. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (2011). South Dakota Public Safety DUI Program: Booster training lesson plan. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (2011). South Dakota Public Safety DUI Program: Implementation training [PowerPoint slides]. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (2011). South Dakota Public Safety DUI Program: Implementation training [Training workbook]. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (2011). South Dakota Public Safety DUI Program: Implementation training lesson plan. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (2011). South Dakota Public Safety DUI Program: Orientation training [PowerPoint slides]. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (2011). South Dakota Public Safety DUI Program: Orientation training [Training workbook]. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (2011). South Dakota Public Safety DUI Program: Orientation training lesson plan. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (2011). What do you think? [Training evaluation]. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (n.d.). South Dakota Public Safety DUI Program: Implementation training [PowerPoint slides]. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (n.d.). South Dakota Public Safety DUI Program: Participant training journal. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (n.d.). South Dakota Public Safety DUI Program: Training resources [CD-ROM]. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (n.d.). South Dakota Public Safety DUI school: Training for trainers lesson plan. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (n.d.). Telephone orientation: South Dakota Public Safety DUI Program. Carson City, NV: Author.
  • Substance Abuse: The Courage To Change:
    • The Change Companies. (2008). Substance Abuse: The Courage To Change: Interactive Journaling system. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (2011). Advanced training: The Courage To Change: Interactive Journaling system. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (2011). Substance Abuse: The Courage To Change Interactive Journaling system: Facilitator guide. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (2011). The Courage To Change: Interactive Journaling system: Advanced training: US probation--District of Hawaii. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (2011). US probation, District of Hawaii: Advanced training agenda/lesson plan. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (n.d.). Assessment of participant: Substance abuse. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (n.d.). Participant evaluation of facilitator: The Courage To Change. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (n.d.). Supervisor/observer evaluation of facilitator: The Courage To Change. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (n.d.). The Courage To Change: Evaluation and assessment instructions. Carson City, NV: Author.
  • Virginia Alcohol Safety Action Program (VASAP):
    • The Change Companies. (2011). The Commission on Virginia Alcohol Safety Action Program (VASAP): Orientation training on Interactive Journaling. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (2011). The Commission on Virginia Alcohol Safety Action Program (VASAP): The Change Companies welcomes VASAP instructors [PowerPoint slides]. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies. (2011). Virginia Alcohol Safety Action Program (VASAP) orientation training agenda. Carson City, NV: Author.
    • The Change Companies & the Commission on Virginia Alcohol Safety Action Program (VASAP). (2011). Education group workbook [Participant journal]. Carson City, NV: The Change Companies.

Non-program-specific training resources from the Change Companies:

  • The Change Companies. (2008). Distance learning module: An introduction to Interactive Journaling. Carson City, NV: Author.
  • The Change Companies. (2008). Looking at the consequences [Training handout]. Carson City, NV: Author.
  • The Change Companies. (2008). Repairing damaged relationships [Training handout]. Carson City, NV: Author.
  • The Change Companies. (2010). Interactive Journaling exercise [Training handout]. Carson City, NV: Author.
  • The Change Companies. (2011). Adult learning [Handout]. Carson City, NV: Author.
  • The Change Companies. (2011). Decisional balance exercise [Training handout]. Carson City, NV: Author.
  • The Change Companies. (2011). Eliciting change talk (D.A.R.N.) [Training handout]. Carson City, NV: Author.
  • The Change Companies. (2011). Facilitation exercise #1: Responsive listening [Training handout]. Carson City, NV: Author.
  • The Change Companies. (2011). Helping people change: Engaging clients in collaborative treatment. Carson City, NV: Author.
  • The Change Companies. (2011). Individual application [Training handout]. Carson City, NV: Author.
  • The Change Companies. (2011). Learning styles [Handout]. Carson City, NV: Author.
  • The Change Companies. (2011). Readiness to change [Training handout]. Carson City, NV: Author.
  • The Change Companies. (2011). Writing an introduction [Training handout]. Carson City, NV: Author.

Other implementation and training documents:

  • Covington, S. (2004). Voices: A program of self-discovery and empowerment for girls. Carson City, NV: The Change Companies.
  • The Change Companies. (1999). Strengthening the spirit: A values-based approach to keeping a healthy balance in one's life. Carson City, NV: Author.
  • The Change Companies. (2007). Abuse or addiction?: The drug abuse roller coaster: Part of the keep it direct and simple series [Participant journal]. Carson City, NV: Author.
  • The Change Companies. (2007). Trauma in life [Participant journal]. Carson City, NV: Author.
  • The Change Companies. (2008). Changing course [Participant journal]. Carson City, NV: Author.
  • The Change Companies. (2010). Breaking the cycle: Getting started: Nonresidential drug abuse treatment [Participant journal]. Carson City, NV: Author.
  • The Change Companies & T'Shuva, B. (2006). Staying free from alcohol & drugs: Preparing for the journey: A program of positive development for Jewish youth. Carson City, NV: The Change Companies.

Non-program-specific quality assurance materials from the Change Companies:

  • Hoffman, N. G. (2000). CAAPE (Comprehensive Addictions and Psychological Evaluation) manual. Carson City, NV: The Change Companies.
  • Hoffman, N. G. (2000). Comprehensive Addictions and Psychological Evaluation (CAAPE). Carson City, NV: The Change Companies.
  • Hoffman, N. G. (2000). Comprehensive Addictions and Psychological Evaluation (CAAPE) summary data. Carson City, NV: The Change Companies.
  • Hoffmann, N. G., Mee-Lee, D., & Shulman, G. D. (2005). Outcome Assessment and Reporting System (OAARS). Carson City, NV: The Change Companies.
  • Hoffmann, N. G., Mee-Lee, D., & Shulman, G. D. (2005). Outcome Assessment and Reporting System (OAARS): Manual. Carson City, NV: The Change Companies.
  • Hoffmann, N. G., Mee-Lee, D., & Shulman, G. D. (2005). Outcome Assessment and Reporting System (OAARS): Tabulations and data analysis. Carson City, NV: The Change Companies.
  • The Change Companies. (n.d.). Fidelity scoring definitions. Carson City, NV: Author.
  • The Change Companies. (n.d.). The Change Companies fidelity tool. Carson City, NV: Author.
  • The Change Companies. (n.d.). The Change Companies fidelity tool: Short form. Carson City, NV: Author.

Web sites:

  • Interactive eJournals Web site, https://www.interactivejournaling.net/index1.php
  • The Change Companies Web site, http://www.changecompanies.net

Readiness for Dissemination Ratings by Criteria (0.0-4.0 scale)

External reviewers independently evaluate the intervention's Readiness for Dissemination using three criteria:

  1. Availability of implementation materials
  2. Availability of training and support resources
  3. Availability of quality assurance procedures

For more information about these criteria and the meaning of the ratings, see Readiness for Dissemination.

Implementation
Materials
Training and Support
Resources
Quality Assurance
Procedures
Overall
Rating
4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0

Dissemination Strengths

Participant journals are attractive and contain engaging exercises. Facilitator guides contain reproductions of the corresponding participant journals, along with core content information and facilitation tips and techniques. Numerous Interactive Journaling programs are available, giving implementers a variety of choices for meeting the needs of their client populations. In addition, the developer can customize a program to meet the needs (e.g., culture, language) of a specific population or to comply with State-specific requirements and regulations. Many training options are available in a variety of formats, including on- and off-site trainings and coaching and consultation via phone calls and Webinars. The developer has a team of consultants who are available to provide assistance on program implementation, staff selection, training options, assessment and outcome measurement, fidelity, and organizational development. A tool is available in long or short form to support program fidelity, and participant pre- and posttests are available to measure outcomes. In addition, the developer offers the Outcome Assessment and Reporting System, which can be used to collect longitudinal data throughout an entire treatment episode. Participant, facilitator, and training evaluations are available to assess program delivery.

Dissemination Weaknesses

No weaknesses were identified by reviewers.

Costs

The cost information below was provided by the developer. Although this cost information may have been updated by the developer since the time of review, it may not reflect the current costs or availability of items (including newly developed or discontinued items). The implementation point of contact can provide current information and discuss implementation requirements.

Item Description Cost Required by Developer
Participant journals $0.90-$9 per journal Yes
Interactive Journaling facilitator guides $15-$35 per guide Yes
45-minute telephone orientation session for facilitators, clinicians, and supervisors Free No
1-day Orientation Training for facilitators, clinicians, and supervisors
  • Off-site training in Carson City, NV: $1,000 for up to 15 participants
  • On-site training: $2,500 for up to 25 participants
No
2- to 3-day Facilitation Implementation Training for facilitators, clinicians, and supervisors
  • Off-site training in Carson City, NV: $1,000 per day for up to 15 participants
  • On-site training: $2,500 for day 1 and $2,000 for days 2 and 3, for up to 25 participants
Yes
2-day Advanced Facilitator Training for facilitators, clinicians, and supervisors
  • Off-site training in Carson City, NV: $1,000 per day for up to 15 participants
  • On-site training: $4,500 for up to 25 participants
No
Distance learning, e-learning, and Webinar modules for facilitators, clinicians, and supervisors (with continuing education credits ranging from 0.5 to 9.0 per module)
  • For individual participants, $10-$25 per module
  • For agencies, $150-$1,000 per module for tailored Webinars
No
3-day, on- or off-site Training for Trainers
  • Off-site training in Carson City, NV: $1,000 per day for up to 6 participants
  • On-site training: $6,500 for up to 10 participants
No
Phone, Webinar, or email technical assistance and consultation Free No
In-depth phone or Webinar coaching Starts at $150 per hour No
The Change Companies Fidelity Tool (long and short forms) Free No
Facilitator evaluations, facilitator self-evaluations, and supervisor/observer evaluation of facilitators Free No
Training evaluation and observation and feedback form Free No
Participant program evaluation forms Included with facilitator guide or available online No
Participant pre- and posttests Included with facilitator guide or available online No
Outcome Assessment and Reporting System (OAARS) $99 for a package of 50 OAARS tools, reporting tables, tabulation sheets, and administration manual No

Additional Information

The Change Companies can customize journals to fit the needs of an implementing agency, and site licenses for distance learning, e-learning, and Webinar modules are available for agencies.

Replications

Selected citations are presented below. An asterisk indicates that the document was reviewed for Quality of Research.

Cheesman, F. L., II, Dancy, D., Jones, A., & Hardenbergh, D. (2005, September). An examination of recidivism of offenders receiving services from the Virginia Alcohol Safety Action Program. Williamsburg, VA: National Center for State Courts.

Davidson, P. (2007, March). Use of recidivism rates by state agencies: Recidivism rates for the Alcohol Safety Action Program (Audit Control No. 06-30035B-07). Juneau, AK: Alaska State Legislature, Legislative Budget and Audit Committee, Division of Legislative Audit. Available at http://www.legaudit.state.ak.us/pages/audits/2007/pdf/30035brpt.pdf

* Loudenburg, R. (2008). South Dakota Public Safety DUI Program: Four year evaluation report. Data period January 2004 through December 2007 (Prepared for the Office of Highway Safety, South Dakota Department of Public Safety). Salem, SD: Mountain Plains Evaluation.

Moore, M. J. (2011, May). Examining participants' motivation to change in residential drug abuse program graduates: Comparing "stages of change" assessment data with post-release status. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Available at http://conservancy.umn.edu/bitstream/108206/1/Moore_umn_0130E_11879.pdf

Parks, G. A., & Woodford, M. S. (2005). CHOICES About Alcohol: A brief alcohol abuse prevention and harm reduction program for college students. In G. R. Walz & R. K. Yep (Eds.), VISTAS: Compelling perspectives on counseling (pp. 171-174). Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.

* Proctor, S. L., Hoffman, N. G., & Allison, S. (2012). The effectiveness of Interactive Journaling in reducing recidivism among substance-dependent jail inmates. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 56(2), 317-332.  Pub Med icon

Raney, V. K., Magaletta, P., & Hubbert, T. A. (2006). Perception of helpfulness among participants in a prison-based residential substance abuse treatment program. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 42(2), 25-34.

Smith, D. C., Hall, J. A., Williams, J. K., An, H., & Gotman, N. (2006). Comparative efficacy of family and group treatment for adolescent substance abuse. American Journal on Addictions, 15(Suppl. 1), 131-136.  Pub Med icon

Contact Information

To learn more about implementation, contact:
Frankie D. Lemus, M.A., LMFT, LADC
(888) 889-8866
frankielemus@changecompanies.net

To learn more about research, contact:
William R. Miller, Ph.D.
(505) 265-3318
wrmiller@unm.edu

Consider these Questions to Ask (PDF, 54KB) as you explore the possible use of this intervention.

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