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Intervention Summary

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ATHENA (Athletes Targeting Healthy Exercise & Nutrition Alternatives)

The ATHENA (Athletes Targeting Healthy Exercise & Nutrition Alternatives) program uses a school-based, team-centered format that aims to reduce disordered eating habits and deter use of body-shaping substances among middle and high school female athletes. The intervention includes a balanced presentation concerning the consequences of substance use and other unhealthy behaviors and the beneficial effects of appropriate sport nutrition and exercise training. ATHENA also incorporates cognitive restructuring appropriate to a sport team setting to address mood-related risk factors for diet pill use.

The intervention consists of eight 45-minute classroom sessions integrated into a team's usual practice activities. Sessions are delivered using scripted lessons in small learning clusters, each led by one coach-designated athlete squad leader. Coaches facilitate the program, keep athletes on task, and introduce and wrap up student-led activities, while squad leaders provide most of the instruction for their small group. Session activities include playing instructional, interactive games; establishing goals for healthy behaviors; role-playing to practice refusal skills; discussing, deconstructing, and remaking magazine advertisements for cigarettes, alcohol, and nutritional supplements; and creating public service campaigns to discourage drug use and disordered eating practices.

Descriptive Information

Areas of Interest Mental health promotion
Substance abuse prevention
Outcomes Review Date: October 2012
1: Intention to use steroids/creatine
2: Intention to engage in unhealthy weight loss

Review Date: January 2007
1: Diet pill use
2: Use of body-shaping substances
3: Behaviors and beliefs related to nutrition
4: Risk and protective factors
5: Alcohol and other drug use
6: Tobacco use
7: Knowledge of curriculum content
Outcome Categories Alcohol
Drugs
Mental health
Tobacco
Ages 13-17 (Adolescent)
Genders Female
Races/Ethnicities White
Race/ethnicity unspecified
Settings School
Geographic Locations Urban
Suburban
Rural and/or frontier
Implementation History ATHENA has been used in more than 250 schools in 45 States. Since 2007, an estimated 1,000 coaches have implemented ATHENA, and the intervention has reached more than 37,000 student athletes.
NIH Funding/CER Studies Partially/fully funded by National Institutes of Health: Yes
Evaluated in comparative effectiveness research studies: Yes
Adaptations A Spanish-language version of ATHENA was developed for implementation by high school teams in Puerto Rico.
Adverse Effects No adverse effects, concerns, or unintended consequences were identified by the developer.
IOM Prevention Categories Selective

Quality of Research
Review Date: October 2012

Documents Reviewed

The documents below were reviewed for Quality of Research. The research point of contact can provide information regarding the studies reviewed and the availability of additional materials, including those from more recent studies that may have been conducted.

Study 1

Ranby, K. W., Aiken, L. S., MacKinnon, D. P., Elliot, D. L., Moe, E. L., McGinnis, W., et al. (2009). A mediation analysis of the ATHENA intervention for female athletes: Prevention of athletic-enhancing substance use and unhealthy weight loss behaviors. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 34(10), 1069-1083.  Pub Med icon

Outcomes

Outcome 1: Intention to use steroids/creatine
Description of Measures Intention to use steroids/creatine was measured using the following statements:

  • "In the future, I would consider using muscle building supplements that you can buy at a health foods store (like creatine, DHEA, or Megabolics)."
  • "In the future, I would consider using anabolic steroids."
Respondents rated their agreement with each statement using a Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree). Item scores were averaged.
Key Findings Eighteen high schools were matched in pairs based on size, average socioeconomic status, and student demographics. The schools were randomized such that one in each pair was assigned to the intervention group, in which girls' sports teams participated in ATHENA, and one was assigned to the control group, in which the teams received pamphlets on disordered eating, drug use, and sports nutrition. Assessments were conducted at pre- and posttest (before and after the 3- to 4-month sport season) and at follow-up 9 months after posttest.

From pre- to posttest, intention to use steroids/creatine decreased for the intervention group and increased for the control group (p < .01). This group difference was associated with a very small effect size (Cohen's d = 0.15). Low intention to use steroids/creatine at posttest was associated with a decrease in the use of steroids/creatine at 9-month follow-up (p < .05).
Studies Measuring Outcome Study 1
Study Designs Experimental
Quality of Research Rating 2.9 (0.0-4.0 scale)
Outcome 2: Intention to engage in unhealthy weight loss
Description of Measures Intention to engage in unhealthy weight loss was measured using the following statements:

  • "In the future, I would consider using drugs to control my weight."
  • "I would use drugs to make myself vomit to lose weight, if that would help my team win or help me get a college athletic scholarship."
  • "In the future, I would consider using diet pills (such as Dexatrim) or energy pills (such as NoDoz) to lose weight."
  • "I would use drugs to control my weight if more of my teammates used them."
  • "If I gained weight, I would make myself vomit or use drugs."
  • "In the future, I would vomit or use drugs to control my weight if more of my friends or teammates did this."
Respondents rated their agreement with each statement using a Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree). Item scores were averaged.
Key Findings Eighteen high schools were matched in pairs based on size, average socioeconomic status, and student demographics. The schools were randomized such that one in each pair was assigned to the intervention group, in which girls' sports teams participated in ATHENA, and one was assigned to the control group, in which the teams received pamphlets on disordered eating, drug use, and sports nutrition. Assessments were conducted at pre- and posttest (before and after the 3- to 4-month sport season) and at follow-up 9 months after posttest.

From pre- to posttest, intention to engage in unhealthy weight loss remained the same for the intervention group and increased for the control group (p < .01). This group difference was associated with a very small effect size (Cohen's d = 0.19). Low intention to engage in unhealthy weight loss at posttest was associated with a decrease in unhealthy weight loss practices at 9-month follow-up (p < .001).
Studies Measuring Outcome Study 1
Study Designs Experimental
Quality of Research Rating 2.9 (0.0-4.0 scale)

Study Populations

The following populations were identified in the studies reviewed for Quality of Research.

Study Age Gender Race/Ethnicity
Study 1 13-17 (Adolescent) 100% Female 91% White
9% Race/ethnicity unspecified

Quality of Research Ratings by Criteria (0.0-4.0 scale)

External reviewers independently evaluate the Quality of Research for an intervention's reported results using six criteria:

  1. Reliability of measures
  2. Validity of measures
  3. Intervention fidelity
  4. Missing data and attrition
  5. Potential confounding variables
  6. Appropriateness of analysis

For more information about these criteria and the meaning of the ratings, see Quality of Research.

Outcome Reliability
of Measures
Validity
of Measures
Fidelity Missing
Data/Attrition
Confounding
Variables
Data
Analysis
Overall
Rating
1: Intention to use steroids/creatine 1.0 2.0 3.5 3.3 3.5 4.0 2.9
2: Intention to engage in unhealthy weight loss 1.5 2.0 3.5 3.3 3.0 4.0 2.9

Study Strengths

The measure assessing intention to engage in unhealthy weight loss had high internal consistency in the study, and all items in both measures have face validity. Intervention fidelity was maximized through the use of training manuals with standardized scripts, lesson plans, workbooks, leader training, and checklists. In addition, fidelity assessments conducted on a random sample of 30 percent of the sessions showed that 80 percent of topics were covered. An assessment of differential attrition across conditions found only one significant finding, as expected by chance. Overall attrition was reasonably low, especially at posttest. Attrition resulted largely from participants no longer playing on the sports team. Efforts were made to minimize the threat of potential confounding variables. For example, schools were matched in pairs on a number of characteristics and were randomly assigned to study condition. The analytic strategies used were sophisticated and appropriate. Sample size and power were adequate.

Study Weaknesses

The internal consistency for the measure of intention to use steroids/creatine was low in the study. The items used to measure both outcomes were either taken directly or were adapted from standard instruments, but entire instruments were not used, potentially compromising the validity of the measures. Researchers randomly assigned schools to condition prior to recruitment, which could have introduced a selection bias, as teams knew their study condition before agreeing to participate. ATHENA participants engaged in fewer unhealthy weight loss behaviors than control participants at pretest, which may have introduced a confound for the outcome on intention to engage in unhealthy weight loss.

Review Date: January 2007

Documents Reviewed

The documents below were reviewed for Quality of Research. The research point of contact can provide information regarding the studies reviewed and the availability of additional materials, including those from more recent studies that may have been conducted.

Study 1

Elliot, D. L., Goldberg, L., Moe, E. L., DeFrancesco, C. A., Durham, M. B., & Hix-Small, H. (2004). Preventing substance use and disordered eating: Initial outcomes of the ATHENA (Athletes Targeting Healthy Exercise and Nutrition Alternatives) program. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 158, 1043-1049.  Pub Med icon

Elliot, D. L., Moe, E. L., Goldberg, L., DeFrancesco, C. A., Durham, M. B., & Hix-Small, H. (2006). Definition and outcome of a curriculum to prevent disordered eating and body-shaping drug use. Journal of School Health, 76, 67-73.  Pub Med icon

Elliot, D. L., Moe, E. L., Goldberg, L., DeFrancesco, C. A., Durham, M. B., & Lockwood, C. (2007). Long-term outcomes of the ATHENA (Athletes Targeting Healthy Exercise & Nutrition Alternatives) program for female high school athletes. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Supplementary Materials

Elliot, D. L., & Goldberg, L. (2008). Athletes Targeting Healthy Exercise and Nutrition Alternatives: Harm reduction/health promotion program for female high school athletes. In C. W. LeCroy & J. E. Mann (Eds.), Handbook of prevention and intervention programs for adolescent girls (pp. 205-240). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Goldberg, L., & Elliot, D. L. (2005). Preventing substance use among high school athletes: The ATLAS and ATHENA programs. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 21(2), 63-87.

Wilke, K. M., MacKinnon, D. P., Elliot, D. L., & Moe, E. L. (2006, May/June). Mediating mechanisms of an intervention with high school female athletes. Poster session presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Prevention Research, San Antonio, TX.

Outcomes

Outcome 1: Diet pill use
Description of Measures Use of diet pills and other supplements was assessed using a self-report question format similar to the Monitoring the Future survey and the 2001 Youth Risk Behavior Survey.
Key Findings When compared with students who did not receive the intervention, students who participated in ATHENA reported reduced diet pill use during the past 3 months (p < .05). Although initiation of any substance use during the sport season was rare among both groups, intervention athletes were less likely than members of the comparison group to report starting use of diet pills (p < .05).
Studies Measuring Outcome Study 1
Study Designs Experimental
Quality of Research Rating 2.9 (0.0-4.0 scale)
Outcome 2: Use of body-shaping substances
Description of Measures Use of body-shaping substances was assessed using a question format similar to the Monitoring the Future survey and the 2001 Youth Risk Behavior Survey.
Key Findings Although initiating drug use during the sport season was infrequent, the ATHENA intervention group had fewer new users of body-shaping substances (i.e., amphetamines, anabolic steroids, muscle-building supplements) than did the comparison group (p < .05).
Studies Measuring Outcome Study 1
Study Designs Experimental
Quality of Research Rating 2.9 (0.0-4.0 scale)
Outcome 3: Behaviors and beliefs related to nutrition
Description of Measures Behaviors and beliefs related to nutrition were measured by asking participants to rate (1) their tracking of their protein intake, (2) the extent to which they had been eating more protein in the previous 2 months, (3) their belief that nutrition affects sport performance, and (4) daily calcium intake. These items were scored on a 7-point scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree).
Key Findings When compared with students in schools without the intervention, students participating in ATHENA indicated more tracking of their protein intake (p < .005), increased total daily protein consumption (p < .001), and greater belief that what they ate affected their athletic performance (p < .05). At follow-up 1 year after the intervention (1-3 years following high school graduation), graduates from ATHENA schools had greater calcium intake than did graduates from comparison schools (p < .001).
Studies Measuring Outcome Study 1
Study Designs Experimental
Quality of Research Rating 2.5 (0.0-4.0 scale)
Outcome 4: Risk and protective factors
Description of Measures Potential influences on drug use and disordered eating (e.g., peers, coaches, media, society) were assessed. In addition, individuals' knowledge and characteristics concerning disordered eating, depression, self-image, and self-esteem were indexed. For self-esteem, body image, and perceptions about peers and teammates, 3 to 7 items were grouped into constructs, and the mean was used as the score.
Key Findings Compared with students in schools without the intervention, students who participated in ATHENA (1) were more likely to believe that their mood was affected by what they did (p < .01) and that they had increased skill in controlling their mood (p < .005); (2) typically indicated increased ability to turn down an offer to engage in drug use and disordered eating behaviors (p = .05); (3) were less likely to believe in the truth of advertisements (p < .005) and disagreed more often with a statement that men find thin women most attractive (p < .05); (4) agreed less often that their closest friends used body-shaping drugs (p < .001) and agreed more often that their closest friends would be against their drug use (p < .001); and (5) reported a significant decrease in perceived pressure from other females to lower their body weight (p < .05).
Studies Measuring Outcome Study 1
Study Designs Experimental
Quality of Research Rating 2.6 (0.0-4.0 scale)
Outcome 5: Alcohol and other drug use
Description of Measures The study assessed 3-month, 1-year, and lifetime alcohol and illicit drug use. Alcohol and drug use measures were recoded into dichotomous variables (e.g., < 5 days of marijuana use in the past 3 months, < 10 days of marijuana use in the past year, < 10 days of marijuana use in lifetime).
Key Findings At follow-up 1 year after the intervention (1-3 years following high school graduation), compared with students in schools without the intervention, graduates who participated in ATHENA reported significant reductions in lifetime (p < .05), 1-year (p < .05), and 3-month (p < .001) marijuana use; and significantly less lifetime (p < .05), 1-year (p < .005), and 3-month (p < .001) alcohol use.
Studies Measuring Outcome Study 1
Study Designs Experimental
Quality of Research Rating 2.5 (0.0-4.0 scale)
Outcome 6: Tobacco use
Description of Measures The study assessed 3-month, 1-year, and lifetime tobacco use. Tobacco use measures were recoded into dichotomous variables (e.g., < 20 days of cigarette use in the past 3 months, < 20 days of cigarette use in the past year, < 20 days of cigarette use in lifetime).
Key Findings At follow-up 1 year after the intervention (1-3 years following high school graduation), compared with students in schools without the intervention, graduates who participated in ATHENA reported significantly less lifetime cigarette use (p < .05).
Studies Measuring Outcome Study 1
Study Designs Experimental
Quality of Research Rating 2.5 (0.0-4.0 scale)
Outcome 7: Knowledge of curriculum content
Description of Measures Knowledge of specific topics was measured. For each topic, 3 to 7 survey items were grouped into constructs, and the mean was used as the score.
Key Findings Following their sport season, compared with students in schools without the intervention, students who participated in ATHENA increased their understanding and retention of the curriculum's knowledge domains, including the detrimental effects of using anabolic steroids (p < .001) and alcohol (p < .001). They also had better knowledge of their calcium needs (p < .01) and the basics of sport nutrition (p < .001).
Studies Measuring Outcome Study 1
Study Designs Experimental
Quality of Research Rating 2.6 (0.0-4.0 scale)

Study Populations

The following populations were identified in the studies reviewed for Quality of Research.

Study Age Gender Race/Ethnicity
Study 1 13-17 (Adolescent) 100% Female 92.5% White
7.5% Race/ethnicity unspecified

Quality of Research Ratings by Criteria (0.0-4.0 scale)

External reviewers independently evaluate the Quality of Research for an intervention's reported results using six criteria:

  1. Reliability of measures
  2. Validity of measures
  3. Intervention fidelity
  4. Missing data and attrition
  5. Potential confounding variables
  6. Appropriateness of analysis

For more information about these criteria and the meaning of the ratings, see Quality of Research.

Outcome Reliability
of Measures
Validity
of Measures
Fidelity Missing
Data/Attrition
Confounding
Variables
Data
Analysis
Overall
Rating
1: Diet pill use 3.5 3.5 3.5 1.5 2.5 3.0 2.9
2: Use of body-shaping substances 3.5 3.5 3.5 1.5 2.5 3.0 2.9
3: Behaviors and beliefs related to nutrition 2.5 2.5 3.5 1.5 2.3 2.5 2.5
4: Risk and protective factors 2.5 2.5 3.5 1.5 2.5 3.0 2.6
5: Alcohol and other drug use 3.5 2.5 3.5 1.5 1.5 2.5 2.5
6: Tobacco use 3.5 2.5 3.5 1.5 1.5 2.5 2.5
7: Knowledge of curriculum content 2.5 2.5 3.5 1.5 2.5 3.0 2.6

Study Strengths

The Monitoring the Future survey question format used by ATHENA researchers has been shown to have acceptable levels of reliability and validity. In the cross-sectional study, factor analysis was used to determine 3- to 7-item scales to reflect various constructs; these had good internal consistency. Most individual items had face validity, and the fact that several measures were impacted similarly by the intervention lends support for their validity. Because this intervention targets girls involved in sports and cheerleading, whereby increased muscle strength benefits performance, measuring changes in the girls' protein intake and tracking of protein intake is logical. Intervention fidelity was ensured through the use of training manuals with standardized scripts, lesson plans, workbooks, leader training, and checklists. In addition, all 20 teams completed the 8 sessions; based on observations and ratings from a research assistant, 80% of the content was delivered. Attrition at the postseason measurement point (26%-30%) was reasonably low and equal across the two groups. The strategy of matching schools and type of team was a strength of the design, and no preexisting differences between the groups emerged at baseline. The researchers used analysis of covariance generalized estimating equations (GEE), a state-of-the-art analytic approach that can factor in team- and school-level clustering.

Study Weaknesses

Evaluation of the intervention's effect on eating behaviors relied on self-reported agreement with relatively global statements rather than on measures with greater validity. Data measuring alcohol and other drug use were dichotomized based on frequency cutoffs that appeared arbitrary; it is not clear whether they were set a priori. The dose of intervention received by the follow-up students varied from one to three seasons of participation; individual attendance and homework completion were not recorded. Attrition at follow-up (1-3 years following high school graduation) was 45%-49% and was similar across the two groups, but no analyses were done to test for potential attrition bias (i.e., to determine whether retained participants were similar to those lost to attrition). In addition, as the authors pointed out, alcohol and other drug use in this age group can be influenced by any number of factors that were not assessed in the study. Covariates were said to be used "when appropriate," but it was unclear in some analyses whether they were used for any particular variable; in the case of drug use measures, baseline rates of alcohol and other drug use were not covaried. Clustering by schools and teams was no longer taken into account in the follow-up analyses, even though these effects may have been significant.

Readiness for Dissemination
Review Date: October 2012

Materials Reviewed

The materials below were reviewed for Readiness for Dissemination. The implementation point of contact can provide information regarding implementation of the intervention and the availability of additional, updated, or new materials.

Elliot, D., Goldberg, L., & Center for Health Promotion Research. (n.d.). The ATHENA program coach manual. Portland, OR: Authors.

Elliot, D., Goldberg, L., & Center for Health Promotion Research. (n.d.). The ATHENA program squad leader manual. Portland, OR: Authors.

Elliot, D., Goldberg, L., & Center for Health Promotion Research. (n.d.). The ATHENA program team workbook. Portland, OR: Authors.

Goldberg, L., Elliot, D., & Center for Health Promotion Research. (n.d.). The ATHENA program athlete's guide. Portland, OR: Authors.

Program Web site, http://www.athenaprogram.com

Sample training agendas:

  • Center for Health Promotion Research. (2010). ATLAS & ATHENA: Paul R. Vogt schools, McMinnville High School coach and squad leader training. Portland, OR: Author.
  • Center for Health Promotion Research. (2010). ATLAS & ATHENA: Safeway schools program, 2010-2011 school year, Hidden Valley High School training agenda. Portland, OR: Author.
  • Center for Health Promotion Research. (2010). ATLAS & ATHENA training at Sun Life Stadium: Home of the Miami Dolphins. Portland, OR: Author.
  • Center for Health Promotion Research. (2010). Oakland Raiders: ATLAS & ATHENA schools, coach and squad leader training agenda. Portland, OR: Author.
  • Center for Health Promotion Research. (2011). Cleveland Browns: ATLAS & ATHENA schools, coach and squad leader training. Portland, OR: Author.

Other dissemination materials:

  • ATHENA Anonymous Student Survey
  • The ATHENA Program: Pre Questionnaire
  • ATHENA Session Observation
  • ATHENA Training Agenda for 2-Hour Conference Calls
  • ATLAS and ATHENA Programs at the Hanley Center
  • Evaluation Form
  • List of session activities
  • New Program Form
  • Session Information Form

Readiness for Dissemination Ratings by Criteria (0.0-4.0 scale)

External reviewers independently evaluate the intervention's Readiness for Dissemination using three criteria:

  1. Availability of implementation materials
  2. Availability of training and support resources
  3. Availability of quality assurance procedures

For more information about these criteria and the meaning of the ratings, see Readiness for Dissemination.

Implementation
Materials
Training and Support
Resources
Quality Assurance
Procedures
Overall
Rating
4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0

Dissemination Strengths

High-quality program materials are available for coaches, squad leaders, and athletes. The coach manual includes everything needed to implement the program, including a CD-ROM with practical implementation tools. The team workbook and athlete's guide are easy to use, with references to a variety of diverse (i.e., ethnic, vegetarian) food choices. Coach and squad leader training can be delivered in person, by teleconference, or through the use of training DVDs. The DVDs are well produced and offer a thorough overview of the program and materials available. In addition, technical assistance is offered by the developer. Fidelity is strengthened through the use of session observation forms to be completed by an independent observer, a list of activities to complete during each session, and a highly scripted curriculum. Self-evaluation forms are available for coaches and squad leaders to use after each session, and student pre- and posttest surveys are available to monitor outcomes. The developer offers survey analysis, and the program Web site provides research outcomes so that schools may compare their evaluation results with those from other schools.

Dissemination Weaknesses

No weaknesses were identified by reviewers.

Review Date: January 2007

Materials Reviewed

The materials below were reviewed for Readiness for Dissemination. The implementation point of contact can provide information regarding implementation of the intervention and the availability of additional, updated, or new materials.

ATHENA Coach CD [CD-ROM]

ATHENA informational DVD

ATHENA Program Dissemination Materials for NREPP Review [Binder]

ATHENA T-shirt

ATHENA Web site, http://www.athenaprogram.com

Elliot, D., Goldberg, L., & Center for Health Promotion Research. (n.d.). The ATHENA program coach manual. Portland, OR: Authors.

Elliot, D., Goldberg, L., & Center for Health Promotion Research. (n.d.). The ATHENA program squad leader manual. Portland, OR: Authors.

Elliot, D., Goldberg, L., & Center for Health Promotion Research. (n.d.). The ATHENA program team workbook. Portland, OR: Authors.

Goldberg, L., Elliot, D., & Center for Health Promotion Research. (n.d.). The ATHENA program athlete's guide. Portland, OR: Authors.

Readiness for Dissemination Ratings by Criteria (0.0-4.0 scale)

External reviewers independently evaluate the intervention's Readiness for Dissemination using three criteria:

  1. Availability of implementation materials
  2. Availability of training and support resources
  3. Availability of quality assurance procedures

For more information about these criteria and the meaning of the ratings, see Readiness for Dissemination.

Implementation
Materials
Training and Support
Resources
Quality Assurance
Procedures
Overall
Rating
3.5 3.5 3.3 3.4

Dissemination Strengths

Program manuals and the team workbook are easy to follow and appropriate for their intended audience. The athlete's guide is comprehensive but still small enough to tuck into a gym bag. The T-shirt is a nice detail emphasizing the team approach. Customized training is available both on-site and over the phone for coaches, coaches and students, or school liaisons. Developers use periodic newsletters, routine phone calls, and e-mails to maintain contact with and provide ongoing support for implementation sites. Quality assurance is supported by participant surveys that are administered pre- and postintervention and are anonymous. Developers also offer additional fidelity and assessment tools for schools that request them.

Dissemination Weaknesses

Little information or support is available for adaptation of this program for other populations (e.g., deaf athletes, more diverse cultural groups). No guidance is provided for conducting a local evaluation of outcomes. In addition, the researchers do not make it clear if or how participating schools can be a part of the broader evaluation of program effectiveness discussed on the program Web site.

Costs

The cost information below was provided by the developer. Although this cost information may have been updated by the developer since the time of review, it may not reflect the current costs or availability of items (including newly developed or discontinued items). The implementation point of contact can provide current information and discuss implementation requirements.

Item Description Cost Required by Developer
Coach package with background materials, coach and squad leader training DVDs, sample workbook, and athlete's guide $280 each Yes
Squad leader package with squad leader manual and athlete's guide $11 each Yes
Athlete package with workbook and athlete's guide $11 each Yes
5-hour, on-site coach and squad leader training for multiple schools at a central site $3,000 for three trainers, plus travel expenses No
4-hour, on-site coach and squad leader training for one or two schools at a single site $2,000 for two trainers, plus travel expenses No
2-hour coach and squad leader training by phone or Skype $250 for up to 10 participants No
Phone and email consultation Free No
Pre- and posttest surveys Free No
Survey analysis Contact the developer No
Replications

Selected citations are presented below. An asterisk indicates that the document was reviewed for Quality of Research.

Elliot, D. L., Goldberg, L., Moe, E., Durham, M., McGinnis, W., DeFrancesco, C., et al. (2008, May). Effectiveness of a health promotion and harm reduction program for young women high school athletes. Poster session presented at the 16th Annual Meeting of the Society for Prevention Research, San Francisco, CA.

Elliot, D. L., Goldberg, L., Moe, E. L., Otis, M. H., & Perrier, E. (2010, April). Does practice make perfect? Repeated use of scripted drug prevention interventions. Poster session presented at the 31st Annual Meeting and Scientific Sessions of the Society of Behavioral Medicine, Seattle, WA.

Elliot, D. L., Goldberg, L., Moe, E. L., Otis, M. H., & Perrier, E. (2010, April). NFL dissemination of school-based drug prevention programs: Training and tailoring effects. Poster session presented at the 31st Annual Meeting and Scientific Sessions of the Society of Behavioral Medicine, Seattle, WA.

* Ranby, K. W., Aiken, L. S., MacKinnon, D. P., Elliot, D. L., Moe, E. L., McGinnis, W., et al. (2009). A mediation analysis of the ATHENA intervention for female athletes: Prevention of athletic-enhancing substance use and unhealthy weight loss behaviors. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 34(10), 1069-1083.  Pub Med icon

Contact Information

To learn more about implementation, contact:
Michelle Otis
(503) 494-3683
steinerm@ohsu.edu

To learn more about research, contact:
Diane L. Elliot, M.D.
(503) 494-6554
elliotd@ohsu.edu

Consider these Questions to Ask (PDF, 54KB) as you explore the possible use of this intervention.

Web Site(s):