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IMPORTANT LEGACY NOTICE: Legacy Programs have not been reviewed by the current National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP). The programs in this database were reviewed only under the previous National Registry of Effective Prevention Programs system. This section is intended to be used for historical reference only. If you would like more information about a program listed here, please contact the program developer directly. The program developer of each Legacy Program listed here agreed to post program information on this site.

Teams-Games-Tournaments Alcohol Prevention

Brief Program Description

Teams-Games-Tournaments (TGT) Alcohol Prevention is a unique approach to alcohol prevention that combines peer support with group reward structures. The TGT focuses on group, rather than individual achievement to learn about alcohol and its effects including biological, psychological, sociocultural, and physiologic determinants and attributes of alcohol; self-management skills for responsible drinking; drinking and driving; recognizing and treating drinking problems; and assertiveness training to respond to peer pressure regarding alcohol.

In all participating schools, students received instruction by one of three methods: the experimental TGT method, traditional instruction (one week course material developed by the State Department of Education and taught by regular school teachers or the highway patrol) or no instruction (the control group). Random assignment occurred at the class level. In total, 526 students participated in the experimental group, 361 in traditional instruction, and 384 in the control group. 21% were seniors, 49% were juniors, and 27% were sophomores. Pretest, posttest, one year followup and two-year followup were completed.

Program Strategies

TGT utilizes three intervention methods:

  1. Games as teaching devices
  2. Small groups of 8 students as classroom work units
  3. Task and reward structures used in traditional classroom settings

Students participate in a 4-week classroom-based program. Students are given a pretest of alcohol knowledge, and are then grouped into 8 member teams based on these scores. Each team consists of 2 high achievers, 4 middle achievers, and 2 low achievers. For TGT purposes, high, middle, and low achievers pertains only to alcohol knowledge determined by pretest scores; performance in other school courses are not relevant.

The alcohol education units are presented for 3 days every week in 50-minute sessions. For the fourth day students work for 50 minutes in their TGT teams to complete worksheets in preparation for the next day's tournament. On the fifth day, students engage in the tournament designed to assess and reinforce knowledge gained in class. Individual and team scores are tabulated at the end of each tournament and posted during the next school day.

Population Focus

The program served high school sophomores, juniors, and seniors.

Suitable Settings

Five schools in metropolitan (N=1), semi-metropolitan (N=2), and rural (N=2) areas of Georgia participated in the research.

Required Resources

Initially, teachers received pertinent reading materials on the TGT technique, alcohol and alcohol abuse, and behavioral and self-management techniques. Teachers then participated in a 4-hour training workshop that prepared them to teach the educational sessions and facilitate the tournament games. After the workshop, Dr. Wodarski, the developer, was available to the teachers as a consultant. Periodic videotaping of the instructors leading a class was used to assure the proper level of competence in the implementation of the program.


On measures of alcohol related knowledge at posttest, participants in the TGT group showed significant gains, relative to both of the other groups. The TGT group increased an average of nine points from pretest to posttest, the traditional group increased by 2.2 points, and the no instruction group did not increase in points from pretest to posttest. Additional analyses confirmed that these effects remained significant at followup.

The TGT participants showed significantly better attitudes toward drinking and driving, relative to the other two groups. The TGT group experienced a significant positive change attitude change of 16.5 points between pretest and posttest. For the traditional group, the change was 2.7 points, and for the control group the change was .9 points. Attitude changes were maintained during both followup periods.

Measures of alcohol consumption between the pre-test and the posttest showed that the TGT group reduced consumption by 12.7%, while the traditional and control groups showed no reduction at all.

The TGT group also had a significant reduction in the amount of alcohol consumed at any one session. Their single session consumption dropped by about 40%, compared with almost no reduction for the traditional and control groups.

Contact Information

For indepth information on this program, please use the contact listed below.

Program Developer

John Wodarski, Ph.D.
Professor, College of Social Work
Sr. Research Scientist, Children’s Mental Health Services Research Center
The University of Tennessee
324 Henson Hall
Knoxville, TN 37996
Phone: (865) 974-3988
Fax: (865) 974-1662

In July 1999, this program was designated as a Promising Program under SAMHSA's previous National Registry of Effective Prevention Programs system.