Legacy Program Summary

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IMPORTANT LEGACY NOTICE: Legacy Programs have not been reviewed by the current National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP). The programs in this database were reviewed only under the previous National Registry of Effective Prevention Programs system. This section is intended to be used for historical reference only. If you would like more information about a program listed here, please contact the program developer directly. The program developer of each Legacy Program listed here agreed to post program information on this site.

Spit Tobacco Intervention

Brief Program Description

Spit Tobacco Intervention aims to promote cessation and reduce initiation of spit tobacco use among male high school baseball players. Based on cognitive social learning theory, Spit Tobacco Intervention (STI) consists of two parts: a single session, peer-led component, and a dental component. The peer-led component includes a discussion of media and industry influences, a slide presentation, and a video. The dental component includes an oral exam from a dentist and, for spit tobacco users, a brief counseling session to establish a quit date and a follow-up phone call by a dental hygienist to discuss the quit date.

About the Study

Forty-four randomly selected rural California high schools were assigned to either the intervention or control condition. Intervention consisted of two components: 1) peer led component, and 2) dental component. The peer led component consisted of a single, interactive, 50 to 60-minute educational team meeting at the school consisting of three segments: a videotape presentation and discussion, a presentation of 10-16 slides, and a small-group discussion on tobacco industry advertising. The dental component consisted of an oral cancer screening by a dentist and was followed by a brief counseling session on tobacco cessation for students who were active spit tobacco users. Saliva samples were collected from subjects at the beginning of the study to encourage honesty in self-reports of ST use.

Results indicated:

  • One-year post intervention, the quit-rate was 27% at intervention high schools and 14% at control high schools.
  • The intervention was most effective in promoting cessation among those who, at baseline, lacked confidence that they could quit, among freshman, and among nonsmokers.
  • The intervention did reduce ST initiation.

Related Publications

Walsh M, Hilton JF, Masouredis C, Gee L, Chesney MA, Ernster VL. Spit Tobacco Cessation Intervention for College Athletes: Results after One Year. American Journal of Public Health (1999) 89(2): 228-234.

Gansky SA, Ellison JA, Kavanagh C, Hilton JF, Walsh MM. Oral Screening and Brief Spit Tobacco Cessation Counseling: A Review and Findings. Journal of Dental Education (2002) 66(9): 1088-1098.

Contact Information

For indepth information on this program, please use the contact listed below.

Program Developer

Margaret M. Walsh, M.S., Ed.D.
University of California, San Francisco
Divisions of Oral Epidemiology and Dental Public Health
School of Dentistry
3333 California Street, Suite 495
San Francisco, CA 94143-1316
Phone: (415) 476-9883
Fax: (415) 502-8447
E-mail: margaret.walsh@ucsf.edu
Web site: http://rtips.cancer.gov/rtips/programDetails.do?programId=192009

In September 2003, this program was designated as a Promising Program under SAMHSA's previous National Registry of Effective Prevention Programs system.