Legacy Program Summary

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IMPORTANT LEGACY NOTICE: Legacy Programs have not been reviewed by the current National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP). The programs in this database were reviewed only under the previous National Registry of Effective Prevention Programs system. This section is intended to be used for historical reference only. If you would like more information about a program listed here, please contact the program developer directly. The program developer of each Legacy Program listed here agreed to post program information on this site.

Problem-Solving Skills Training (PSST) and Parent Management Training (PMT) for Conduct Disorder

Brief Program Description

PSST is a therapeutic intervention aimed at teaching children with conduct disorder how to approach interpersonal situations. Treatment consists of 12 to 20 weekly individual sessions, approximately 30 to 50 minutes each. Children are taught a step-by-step approach to solving interpersonal problems. Prosocial behaviors are fostered through modeling and direct reinforcement. Structured tasks such as games, academic activities, and stories are used to teach children how to apply what they have learned. Over the course of treatment, children are encouraged to increase application of lessons to real-life situations. The program includes a token reinforcement system, but relies more on social reinforcement. Therapists also teach parents to help their child use the problem-solving steps.

PMT trains parents to alter their conduct-disordered children's behavior in the home. Parents are trained to identify, define, and observe problem behaviors and how to change antecedents, behaviors, and consequences. Treatment consists of 12-16 weekly outpatient sessions.


PSST and PSST with PMT have been tested on ethnically and socioeconomically diverse families with boys and girls aged 6 to 14 years old. The treatments have been administered at inpatient and outpatient clinical settings. In random trials, PSST participants showed significantly greater decreases in internalizing, externalizing, and aggression and greater increases in prosocial behaviors and overall adjustment than participants in nondirective relationship therapy or contact-only controls. These results persisted at 1-year followup. In a randomized trial, children whose families participated in both PSST and PMT had fewer internalizing or externalizing behaviors, and were less aggressive than contact-only controls at posttest and 1-year follow-up.

Contact Information

For indepth information on this program, please use the contact listed below.

Program Developer

Alan Kazdin, Ph.D., ABPP
John M. Musser Professor of Psychology & Child Psychiatry
Department of Psychology
Yale University
P.O Box 208205
New Haven, CT 06520-8205
Phone: (203) 432-9993
Fax: (203) 432-4525
Email: alan.kazdin@yale.edu
Website: http://www.yale.edu/childconductclinic

This program was designated as an Effective Program under SAMHSA's previous National Registry of Effective Prevention Programs system.